X-ray fluorescence analysis techniques: Principles and instrumentations
X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is a physical technique of rapid elemental analysis.
It makes it possible to determine the chemical composition, in major elements and in traces, for contents ranging from ppm up to 100%.Its operating principle consists of bombarding a sample with a flow of X photons of sufficient energy, then the emission of X-rays characteristic of the elements constituting the sample occurs, this is the phenomenon of X fluorescence.
Analysis of these X-rays requires the presence of a dispersive system, one uses the phenomena of X-ray diffraction by crystals (Wavelength Dispersion X Fluorescence Spectrometer ,WD-XRF) and the other the sensitivity of certain sensors to the energy of the photons detected (Energy Dispersion X Fluorescence Spectrometer, ED-XRF).
There is also another technique of Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) based on conventional energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence.
X-ray fluorescence analysis covers several industries such as metallurgy, archeology, biology, petroleum products, etc.
and is applied from boron to all elements of the Mendeleev table regardless of the nature of the sample.
PhD in Physics from the Faculty of Sciences, Moulay Ismail University, Meknes-Morocco, researcher at the National Center for Energy, Nuclear Science and Technology (CNESTEN) Kenitra-Morocco.