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Scale formation has always been a tedious problem to scientists and heating equipment manufacturers as well as production engineers.
Scale is encountered most of the time in heat exchangers using hot water or steam as the heating fluid, and in steam production with boilers.
In fact, the scale deposited on the tubes of the heat transfer equipment creates a certain resistance to heat transmission from one fluid to the other.
The calcium carbonate, which is the preponderant agent for scale, forms a thin layer over the plate or tubing material such that the overall heat transfer is affected negatively.
To overcome these shortcomings, manufacturing engineers have to over-design the installation, and production engineers.
My most significant achievement to date is PhD in Engineering and Bio science (2010) award.
Water polltion control Msc(2000), MBA Industrial Management (2002), BSc Chemical Engineer(1993), Researcher specializing on environmental sciences, chemical analysis technique, and quality management, working as lecturer on Environmental engineering.
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