Pathophysiology of Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases

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A review of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of AITD and antibody production

Thyroid diseases are among the most common endocrine diseases and autoimmunity plays a major role in the pathogenesis of thyroid diseases.

The aietiology of AITDs is not fully understood but they occur as a result of interaction between genetic predisposition and environmental factors.

The main autoantibodies expressed in autoimmune thyroid diseases are thyroperoxidase antibodies, thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibodies and thyroglobulin antibodies.

Some antibodies are disease specific while others occur even in non-thyroidal diseases.

The pathogenesis revolves around the initiation of immune response to the antigens by several cells e.g.

lymphocytes and the production of inflammatory mediators e.g.

cytokines.

The entire process ends up pathophysiologically in cellular destruction or hyperplasia culminating in reduced or excessive secretion of thyroid hormones.

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