Environmental Archaeology of the Nile Third Cataract
In Third Cataract Region, the prominent geological features are the presence of paleaochannels, khors and wadis, indicating a humid nature of the climatic conditions in the past.
The most important one is Wadi Farja.
The important cultivated plants are palm, wheat, sorghum, maize, beans, onion, fruits and vegetables.
So many acacia trees and dome as well bushes, shrubs and grasses are recognized in the area.
Concerning the fauna, the natives rear goats, sheep, cattle, donkeys, cats, dogs and hens.
The wild animals are gazelles, wild rabbits, hyena and many reptiles as Uromastyx Sp., Nile monitor, crocodiles, and snakes.
More than 40 species of Nile fish were also reported.
There are mosquitoes, sand flies and Nemitti.
Scorpions are very common residents of this area.
The area has a large number of animal rock drawings.
These drawings include elephants, rhinoceroses, hippopotamuses, giraffes, cows, camels, leopards and lions.
One of rarest rock drawings is a one of a scorpion.
The important notification from the study is that Wadi Farja was running Nile branch during mid Holocene.
Yahia Fadl Tahir• Associate Professor of Environmental Archaeology • Dept.
of Archaeology, University of Khartoum, Sudan • Head Dept.
of Archaeology (2007-2010)• Director: El-Gaab Archaeological Project (Dongola, Sudan) since 2007• 22 published papers (12 international journals and 10 local), 10 conference papers and 4 Archaeological research papers.